Inflammation and microcirculation … Can microcirculation dysfunctions cause drainage blocking as Atypical Cystic Fibrosis in upper air-ways can do?

Can microcirculation cause drainage blocking as Atypical Cystic Fibrosis in upper air-ways?

”The microcirculation is highly responsive to, and a vital participant in, the inflammatory response. All segments of the microvasculature (arterioles, capillaries, and venules) exhibit characteristic phenotypic changes during inflammation that appear to be directed toward enhancing the delivery of inflammatory cells to the injured/infected tissue, isolating the region from healthy tissue and the systemic circulation, and setting the stage for tissue repair and regeneration. The best characterized responses of the microcirculation to inflammation include impaired vasomotor function, reduced capillary perfusion, adhesion of leukocytes and platelets, activation of the coagulation cascade, and enhanced thrombosis, increased vascular permeability, and an increase in the rate of proliferation of blood and lymphatic vessels. A variety of cells that normally circulate in blood (leukocytes, platelets) or reside within the vessel wall (endothelial cells, pericytes) or in the perivascular space (mast cells, macrophages) are activated in response to inflammation. The activation products and chemical mediators released from these cells act through different well-characterized signaling pathways to induce the phenotypic changes in microvessel function that accompany inflammation. Drugs that target a specific microvascular response to inflammation, such as leukocyte–endothelial cell adhesion or angiogenesis, have shown promise in both the preclinical and clinical studies of inflammatory disease. Future research efforts in this area will likely identify new avenues for therapeutic intervention in inflammation.”,in%20the%20rate%20of%20proliferation

”The microcirculation is the final destination of the cardiovascular system and is ultimately responsible for oxygen transfer from the red blood cells (RBC) in the capillaries to the parenchymal cells where oxygen is delivered to meet the energy requirements of the tissue cells in support of their functional activity. Other functions of the microcirculation include the regulation of solute exchange between the intravascular and tissular space and is responsible for the transport of all blood-borne hormones and nutrients to the tissue cells including mediating the functional activity of the immune system and hemostasis. It is arguably the most important compartment of the cardiovascular system, since it is in direct contact with the parenchymal cells, which rely on its proper function to maintain their viability to support organ function.”
An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc. Object name is bpu-0049-0143-g01.jpgFig 1: Microvascular anatomy. The microcirculation is the part of the vascular system and consists of the small vessels so-called arterioles, capillaries, and venules. The lymphatic capillaries carry the extravascular fluid into the venous system. The arterioles are surrounded by vascular smooth muscle cells responsible for the regulation of arteriole tone.,support%20of%20their%20functional%20activity.

”The inflammatory response (inflammation) occurs when tissues are injured by bacteria, trauma, toxins, heat, or any other cause. The damaged cells release chemicals including histamine, bradykinin, and prostaglandins. These chemicals cause blood vessels to leak fluid into the tissues, causing swelling.”,into%20the%20tissues%2C%20causing%20swelling.
”Inflammation is a complex dynamic protective response to cell injury, infection via microbes, trauma, or toxins in the vascularized tissues. The causative agent is diluted, destroyed, or isolated and a sequential cascade of molecular events is set that leads to repairing, healing, and reconstituting the damaged tissue (Li et al. ; Iwalewa et al. ; Libby ; Delves et al. ; Goldsby et al. ; Guyton and Hall ). It is thoroughly characterized by the reaction in tissues and its microcirculation as clinically reflected by redness (erythema), heat (hyperemia), swelling (exudation), pain (through nerves and chemical mediators), and loss of function (pain). Pathologically, it takes place by vasoconstriction followed by vasodilation, hyperemia, stasis, accumulation of leukocytes, exudation of fluid, and finally deposition of fibrin. The combined vascular and cellular inflammatory responses are triggered by inflammatory stimulus and mediated through chemical factors derived from some cells or blood plasma. Even the injured or dead tissues release mediators (Li et al. ; Iwalewa et al. ; Libby ; Delves et al. ; Goldsby et al. ; Guyton and Hall ).”

”Microcirculation plays a pivotal role in the coordination of cardiovascular function, from regulation of rheology and hemostasis, to the control of perfusion and immune response. Microcirculation dysfunction is an early hallmark of several cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, preceding clinical manifestations by several years”